Current Applications

Current Applications

Following are some specific examples:

Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management (Boldrin et al., 2014)

Type of document: Report for the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

The report is a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the treatment of shredder residue in Denmark. Shredder residue is defined as the “residual fraction from mechanical shredding of metal containing scrap originating from different sources and processed at recycling stations or metal recovery businesses”. The assessment compares the potential environmental impacts and depletion of abiotic resources in relation to four alternative scenarios. All scenarios included the sorting of recyclables (i.e. glass, plastic and metals) and the landfilling of fine residues <4 mm, which were assumed not suitable for thermal treatment because of their high content of heavy metals. 4 alternatives for the treatment of the >4 mm residue remaining after sorting of recyclable materials were modelled: landfilling, co-combustion at a waste incineration plant, pyrolysis, and co-combustion in a cement kiln. Uncertainty calculations were carried out via Monte Carlo simulation, using 10,000 random variables to calculate the uncertainty distribution of the results.

A global approach for sparse representation of uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessments of waste management systems (Bisinella et al., 2016)

A systematic method for selection of critical parameters based on a simplified analytical formulation that unifies the concepts of sensitivity and uncertainty in a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) framework was proposed in the article. The method of calculating the sensitivity coefficients was evaluated against the more traditional uncertainty assessment procedures. Three scenarios were modelled by using the ILCD recommended impact categories. Common uncertainty ranges of 10 % are used for all parameters, and all parameters were assumed to be normally distributed.

Greenhouse gas emission factors for recycling of source-segregated waste materials (Turner et al., 2015)

A comprehensive Green House Gases emission factors were documented for several source-separated materials recycling. Source-separated materials were chosen because they were the majority of collected dry recyclables in UK and they had a lower grade of contamination compared to com-mingled materials. The following material groups were included: glass, paper and cardboard, metals, plastic and wood.

REFERENCES
Bisinella, V., Conradsen, K., Christensen, T.H., Astrup, T.F., 2016. A global approach for sparse representation of uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessments of waste management systems. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 21, 378–394. doi:10.1007/s11367-015-1014-4

Boldrin, A., Damgaard, A., Brogaard, L.K.-S., Astrup, T.F., 2014. Life Cycle assessment of shredder residue management.

Turner, D.A., Williams, I.D., Kemp, S., 2015. Greenhouse gas emission factors for recycling of source-segregated waste materials. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 105, 186–197. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.10.026

http://www.easetech.dk/model-description/current-applications
27 JUNE 2019